After almost fifteen months of unsuccessful negotiations between Kosovar 2Albanian leaders and Serbia’s leadership led by the UN Special Envoy for Kosovo Martti Ahtisaari, Kosovo declared independence from Serbia in February 2008. It has so far gained only partial recognition; 117 3countries have recognised Kosovo as of December 2020. Kosovo’s independence was (and remains) vehemently opposed by Serbia, but also by many other countries, including five EU Member States, Russia, and China. The Parliament of Kosovo adopted a new Law on Citizenship only three days after the declaration of independence. However, because of internal and external disagreements about the future of the country and polity, Kosovo still faces difficulties in reinforcing both its statehood and in constituting the body of its citizens. Serbia’s refusal to recognise Kosovo’s independence has transformed the country into a territory of overlapping sovereignties. In this situation, the absolute majority of Kosovo Serbs (who make up less than 10 per cent of the overall population) consider themselves to be Serbian citizens alone (although a considerable number of them now accept new Kosovo documents as well). Ethnic Albanians as well as other ethnic groups have embraced Kosovo citizenship. Dual citizenship both with Serbia and with third countries (because of both economic and political emigration from Kosovo) is commonplace. This whole mosaic of problems is further complicated when one considers the consequences of the war in Kosovo (1998-1999), nearly a decade of de facto statelessness, and the relatively high number of refugees and internally displaced people (IDPs), most of whom yet have to resolve their citizenship status.